MODULE SOLID WASTE
SW1: BIO-INDICATIVE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR ASSESSMENT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION
The control system is based on the auto-fluorescence of co-factor F420 and uses three fluorescent parameters: the values of the ratio mean size/number of clusters, the fluorescence intensity and the area of the fluorescent objects. The digesters are divided in three zones – with a high effectiveness; with a satisfactory effectiveness but which need to be strictly monitored; with a low effectiveness.
The bio-indicative system contributes to the more effective and efficient management and functioning of the technologies for biogas production by various types of bio-wastes.
SW2: METHOD FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SYNTHESIS OF ZEOLITES FROM ASH OBTAINED FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SOLID FUELS IN A TPP
Preparation of sorbents using reduced amounts of NaOH and energy
SW3: MODEL OF METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMIATION OF NATURAL RISK
Assessment of the natural risk of different specific sites.
Proposals and recommendations for the prevention of individual areas (sites)
Proposals for the removal of dangerous and potentially dangerous contaminants (geochemical barriers, construction activities, etc.)Benefits: Obtaining specific methodologies for assessing the natural risk of different regions, depending on their specific characteristics. Optimizing the working relationships between professionals with different backgrounds and those with administrative institutions
SW4: DETERMINATION AND CONTROL OF MACRO AND MICROELEMENTS, ORGANIC SUBSTANCES AND RADIONUCLIDES IN SOLID WASTES
Development and optimization of RFA and LA-ICP-MS methods for investigation and determination of the element composition of solid wastes with different origin. Gamma spectrometry for determination of the radionuclide composition – natural and technogenic radionuclides. Creation of a data base for the composition of ashes from Bulgarian thermal power stations.
SW5: SEPARATION AND RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY FOR COMPOSITE WASTE AND RECOVERY OF THEIR ENERGY CALORIFIC VALUE AS FUEL
Separation of composite waste according to their composition. Establish the opportunity of recycling of metal component. Recovery of plastic and/or paper component by recycling, manufacture of articles or as energy resource.The innovative potential of these technologies lies in the separation of the packaging of its constituent substances, in order to utilize any of the substances obtained after separation (metal, plastic, paper) for the manufacture of articles or as an energy resource.
SW6: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR BIOFERTILIZERS WITH PROFILED VALUABLE PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE
Creation of compost, enriched with macro- and microelements. The source of macro- and microelements can be different.
The benefit of the technology is that, depending on the purpose, profiled batches can be created for use in crop, floriculture and more.
SW7: IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS AND POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE (C&DW)
Description: One of the biggest problems for C&DW recovery is the lack of practical knowledge on their hazardous properties arising from the materials per se (e.g. asbestos or tar) or acquired during the buildings service life (e.g. contamination with heavy metals, petroleum products, PCBs, etc.). For the C&DW classification, the following actions are foreseen: a categorisation of construction works is intended regarding the risk of contamination; innovative methods for identification of hazardous components are going to be developed and a database is going to be established with data on the type of construction materials and their environmental parameters.
Benefits: Establishing a database with hazardous and potentially hazardous C&DW facilitates the process of identification of such waste and will support the decision-making process regarding the technologies for dismantling of construction works and the appropriate options for recovery and disposal of C&DW. The innovative methods for relatively fast (incl. in-situ) identification of (potentially) hazardous components in C&DW will help the recycling facilities to reduce their production costs and will increase the credence of recycled materials by improving their traceability.Finding out the degree of hazard of construction waste is also important in terms of ensuring occupational health and safety (OHS) during dismantling and recycling activities.
SW8: DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS FOR SELECTIVE DEMOLITION OF CONSRTUCTION WORKS IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE DEGREE OF C&DW RECOVERY
Description: Practical guidelines on selective demolition/deconstruction, applicable to targeted groups of construction works – industrial factories, agricultural buildings, infrastructural objects, parking lots and gas stations, residential buildings with masonry or reinforced concrete load-bearing structure, etc., taking into account the peculiarities of the Bulgarian construction practices, used materials and technologies as well as the degree of maintenance of buildings and construction works, are going to be published. Emphasis is to be placed on buildings and facilities that have been subjected to specific contaminations during their service life.
Benefits: The selective demolition/deconstruction has been proven as the most efficient method for demolition waste management – it provides the separate collection of recyclable components, creates conditions for adequate treatment of hazardous and contaminated waste, results in minimisation of the disposal costs.The guidelines are intended for use by contractors of construction and demolition activities and by designers in the investment process.
SW9: DEVELOPMENT OF NEW BUILDING MATERIALS BY MEANS OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF CONSTRUCTION WASTE
Description: Creation of new materials and construction products based on recycled C&DW by using optimised resource- and energy-efficient technologies. Discovering the interactions in the “composition-technology-structure-properties-applications” chain is going to be a fundamental principle for development of new materials, which will work in two-way direction – defining the most appropriate applications of materials with certain composition and properties as well as adaptation of composition and structure for achieving the desired performances. Primary feasibility criterion for the new materials is going to be their competitiveness – they must be a comparable or better alternative to existing construction materials. Beside the construction-related technical characteristics, the environmental footprint of products will be among the key parameterswith accent on their energy consumption and recycled content as well as on further recyclabilityoptions.
Granite-like glass ceramics from harmful industrial wastes
The proposed technology is based on the vitrification of harmful inorganic residues and subsequent sinter-crystallization of obtained glass granulate (frit) with an original composition. In this manner several industrial wastes can be used for synthesize of tiling materials with an attractive appearance coupled with properties, surpassing several times ones of the traditional tiling materials and natural stones. The used approach gives an unique possibility for inertization of high amounts of hazardous wastes into high-quality tiling panels with granite-like appearance, which are appropriated for the modern architecture.
Tiling ceramics by high amount of industrial wastes with improved properties
The usage of moderate amounts (5-25%) of industrial waste as raw material for the production of various building ceramics is a well-studied and used approach. However, the method here proposed is non-traditional since it is based on principally new batch compositions with 50-70% industrial waste and 20-40% plastic clays. In this manner, huge amounts of industrial waste are immobilized and the usage of expensive feldspar fluxes is eliminated. In addition, due to the controlled crystallization of the new compositions some of their characteristics are improved.
Iron-rich glass-ceramic foams
Development of a technology to produce self-glazed sintered glass-ceramics and/or glass-ceramic foams from appropriated iron-rich industrial wastes. The technology is based on melting and milling of appropriated glass, pressing and subsequent specific heat-treatments. In the temperature interval 750-950ºC sinter-crystallization takes place and well sintered tilling materials can be obtained. At the same time, due to auto catalytic reduction of the iron oxides in the range 1000-1150 oC, high temperature glass-ceramic foams with closed porosity of about 80-90 vol %, appropriated for thermal and sound isolations, can be manufactured.
Bio-electrochemical methods for utilization of organic compounds from wastewater and resource recovery
Design and construction of different types of lab scale and pilot scale bio-electrochemical reactors (Microbiological Fuel Cells, Microbiological Electrolysis Cells, etc.) for various applications in the field of solid waste and wastewater management. Development of new and advanced technologies for the removal of heavy metals elimination of free radicals in fluids were recently developed based on Bio-electrochemical processes. Several reactors for biological treatment of waste streams, besides the conventional anaerobic digestion are also applied with the purpose to simultaneously remove pollutants form the treated fluids and recover energy .The main advantages of this group of methods are the elimination of the need for forced aeration (elimination of a significant part of the energy costs in purification), the low biomass growth and the relief of secondary separation, the recovery of energy from organic pollutants in the water directly in the form of electric current.
Identification and characterization of electrochemically active bacteria from natural resources
Development of comprehensive approach to identify potential biological niches which contain bacteria with the desired metabolic characteristics. The procedure includes methods for isolation, cultivation and characterization of electrochemically active bacterial species. A microbial collection of strains with proven electrogenic potential has been created. Different methods from the fields of electrochemistry, microbiology and molecular biology are applied for better characterization of the microbial cultures.
AL the strains of interest are also tested for technological feasibility in real bio-electrochemical reactors, both as suspended and immobilized cultures.
Development of technologies and technological procedures for treatment of waste fluids and nutrients recovery
The laboratory develops hybrid technologies for the complete treatment of wastewater from WWTP, agriculture and the food industry, with simultaneous recovery and recycling of resources such as fertilizers and energy.
The main aim of this group of activities is to produce of fertilizers such as struvite for eventual application In the so-called organic farming. For this purpose, a number of alternative technological processes for the non-reagent (chemical free) treatment of the target fluids are developed and applied. Conventional processes such as membrane filtration, precipitation, and crystallization are also used in their very optimized variants in order to improve energy and cost efficiency.